Эдийн засаг АНУ-ын төсвийн асуудал
  • 2013/10/07
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Өнгөрсөн жил дэлхийн санхүүгийн зах зээлийг донсолгосон АНУ-ын төсвийн асуудал энэ жил ч дахин сөхөгдөх шинжтэй байна. АНУ-ын засгийн газрын өрийн үлдэгдэл хуульдаа 16.7 триллион доллар гэж заасан байдаг. 10 сарын 17-нд АНУ-ын Засгийн Газрын өр энэхүү дээд хязгаартаа хүрнэ. Улмаар АНУ-ын Засгийн Газар өрөө төлөх чадваргүй болно гэсэн үг.

Энэхүү хязгаарыг өсгөхөд (хязгаарыг өсгөснөөр дахин өр тавих боломжтой) парламентийн гишүүдийн баталгаа хэрэгтэй. Гэвч Обамагийн засгийн газар болон түүний сөрөг хүчин болох Бүгд Найрамдах нам хоорондоо зөвшилцөлд хүрч чадахгүй явсаар байна.

Бодит амьдрал дээр АНУ-ын Засгийн газар бонд гаргаж чадахгүйдээ (зээл авч чадахгүйдээ) хүрвэл засгийн газар нь бэлэн мөнгөний хомсдолд орно. Ийм байдалд хүрвэл засгийн газрын харьяа байгууллагууд хаагдаж, бүр хүнд нөхцөлд тулбал, бондын хүүгээ (өрөө төлөхгүй) төлж чадахгүй байдалд хүрэх аюултай байна. Өнөөдөр ч АНУ-ын Засгийн Газрын байгууллагууд үйл ажиллагаагаа зогсоогоод байна. Цагаан ордон, Хөдөлмөрийн Яам зэрэг Засгийн Газрын байгууллагуудын төв цахим хуудас зогсонги байдалд ороод байна. “Засгийн Газрын төсвийн асуудлаар парламентын зөвшилцөлд хүрч чадаагүйн улмаас мэдээлэл шинэчлэгдэхгүй” гэсэн анхааруулга гарч ирч байна. Интернет ашиглан АНУ-ын Засгийн Газрын статистик мэдээллийг үздэг санхүүгийн зах зээлийн мэргэжилтнүүдэд энэхүү нөхцөл байдал хүндээр тусаад байна. Энгийн жишээ л гэхэд 10 сарын 4 нд зарлагдах байсан “АНУ-ын Ажил Эрхлэлтийн Cтатистик” гарч чадалгүй хойшлогдоод байна. Санхүүгийн мэргэжилтнүүдийн хамгийн гол ашигладаг материал ийнхүү ашиглагдахгүй байна.

Эдийн засагчдын үзэж байгаагаар энэхүү асуудлын ард 2 том шалтгаан байна. Нэгдүгээрт, АНУ-ын парламентын зогсонги байдал. Хоёрдугаарт, ерөнхийлөгч Обамагийн удирдлага суларч байгаа явдал. АНУ-ын парламентын дээд, доод танхимыг Ардчилсан нам, Бүгд Найрамдах Нам ноёрхож байгаа. Үүнээс болж төсвийн асуудал зөвшилцөлд хүрч чадалгүй зогсонги байдалд ороод байна. Сүүлийн үед Ерөнхийлөгч Обамагийн байр суурь ч ихээр суларч байгаа.  Сири рүү цэрэг оруулах тал дээр Оросод гол эрхээ алдсан. Холбооны Нөөцийн Сан (FRB)-ийн дараагийн дарга дээр өөрийн нэр дэвшүүлсэн хүнээ томилох гэсэн ч чадалгүй байр сууриа алдсан. Ерөнхийлөгч Обама ажлаасаа хүлээж авсан цагаасаа л онц ялгарахуйц амжилт үзүүлсэнгүй гэж шүүмжлүүлсээр ирсэн.

Ерөнхийлөгч Обамагийн нөлөөлөл ийнхүү сулрах явцад хэрхэн төсвийн асуудлаа шийдэж чадах нь асуудал болоод байна. Өнөөдрийн нөхцөл байдлыг харвал сөрөг хүчинтэйгээ зөвшилцөлд хүрч чадаагүй л байна. Бүгд Найрамдах Нам зөвшилцөлд хүрэх нөхцөл болгож Обамагийн гаргасан шинэ эрүүл мэндийн даатгалын системийг устгах нөхцөл тавьж байгаа. Гэвч ерөнхийлөгч Обама эрүүл мэндийн даатгалын системтэй холбоотой асуудлаар хэлэлцэх зүйл байхгүй гэдгээ мэдэгдсэн. 10 сарын 17 хүртэл зөвшилцөлд хүрэхгүй бол АНУ-ын Засгийн Газрын бондын үнэ цэнэ унах аюул нүүрлээд байна. Энэ нь дэлхийн санхүүгийн зах зээлд маш том цохилт учруулах аюултай. 2008 оны дэлхийн эдийн засгийн хямралыг дахин сэргээх ч аюултай юм.

О.Баярсайхан
2013 оны 10сарын 06 өдөр

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