Чөлөөт Хөгжлийн загвар, бодлогын өөрчлөлтүүд
  • 2013/10/18
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1950-аад оноос эхлэн хөгжлийн гол хөшүүрэг нь төр гэгдэж байсан бөгөөд дайны дараах бүтээн байгуулалт, цаашдын хөгжлийнхөө төлөө гаднаас авсан зээл тусламжийг төрийн удирдлага дор дэд бүтэц, үйлдвэр байгууламж байгуулахад зарцуулж байв. Гэвч энэ бодлого нь тоотой хэдхэн оронд үр дүнгээ өгсөнөөс, ихэнх гуравдагч орнуудад өрөнд дарагдсан хэт том төрийн аппаратуудыг л үлдээжээ.

Ингээд төр төвтэй хөгжлийн бодлогоос сургамж аван 1980-аад оноос хөгжлийн онолууд үндсээрээ өөрчлөгдөж эхлэв. Олон Улсын Валютын Сан, Дэлхийн Банкны зааварчилгаагаар Неолибэрализмын (Neoliberalism) хүрээнд төрийн аппаратыг жижгэрүүлэн үүрэг ролийг нь багасгаж улс орны хөгжил, ирээдүйг бүхлээр нь зах зээл, чөлөөт өрсөлдөөнд даатгав. Ийнхүү чөлөөт худалдаа, мөнгө төвт бодлого, цаашлаад хэт хурдацтай үйлдвэржилт дагасан байгаль орчны асуудал, чөлөөт өрсөлдөөн дагасан баян хоосны ялгаа, ядуурал зэрэг асуудлууд хурцдав.

Үүнээс улбаалаад 1990-ээд оноос эхлэн, эдийн засгийн хөгжлийг улс орны хөгжлийн гол хөшүүрэг гэж үздэг онолыг шүүмжлэн хүний хөгжил төвтэй хөгжлийн бодлого боловсруулагдаж эхэллээ. Энэ нь хөгжилд хүрэхийн тулд эхлээд хувь хүний хөгжлийг нэн тэргүүнд тавьж эдийн засгийн хөгжил нь зөвхөн хөгжилд хүрэх арга зам төдий юм хэмээв.

Энэ бүгдээс харахад хөгжилд хүрэх зам, өөрөөр хэлбэл хөгжлийн үндсэн онолууд нь өмнөх үеийнхээ алдаа оноо, туршлага, тухайн цаг үеийнхээ шаардлагад нийцүүлэн өөрчлөгдөж иржээ.

Хөгжлийн эдийн засгийн онолын эцэг гэгдэх Michael P.Todaro – ийн дурьдсанаар, хөгжлийн үндсэн зорилго нь “1-рт, хүний амьдралын наад захын хэрэглээ болох хүнс, орон байр, хувцас зэрэг үндсэн материаллаг эд зүйлсийг хүрэлцээтэй байлгах. Эрүүл мэнд, аюулгүй байдал нийгмийн хамгааллыг сайжруулж, эдгээрийн нийгэм дэх хуваарилалтыг шударга байлгах. 2-рт, тухайн нийгэмдээ хувь хүн эрхээ бүрэн эдлэх боломжтой байх. 3-рт, хувь хүний эдийн засгийн болон нийгэм дэх сонголтыг олшруулах зэрэг юм. Энэ гурван зорилго гурвуулаа биелсэн нийгмийг хөгжсөн нийгэм гэж хэлж болох бөгөөд зөвхөн эдийн засаг нь хөгжөөд бусад нийгмийн асуудлуудаа шийдэж чадаагүй улс орныг хөгжсөн гэж хэлэх нь зохимжгүй” гэж хэлжээ.

Гэвч бодит байдал дээр эдгээр гурван зорилтыг биелүүлээд тогтвортой хөгжиж байгаа улс орон хэд байна вэ?.

Өнөөдөр ч гэсэн, хөгжил гэдгийг зөвхөн эдийн засгаар тодорхойлон бүх зүйл мөнгөн дээр эргэлдсээр л…

Харин цаашдаа улс орон зөв хөгжихийн тулд ①эдийн засгийн хөгжил, ②хувь хүний хөгжил болон тэгш эрх, ③байгаль орчны тогтвортой байдал гурвын тэнцвэрийг хэрхэн хадгалах вэ?

2013.10.18
Э.Хонгорзул

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