Хувь хүний хөгжил Таны доторх дотоод ба гадаад өдөөгч
  • 2014/02/12
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 1454938_666315173412443_2087542373_n-300x187Хүн ямар нэгэн юмыг хийх эхлэл бол хүний доторхи хүсэл байдаг. Харин хүсэл гэдэг зүйл янз бүрийн зүйлээс урган гарна. Хүсэл байхгүй байхад хийх шаардлагатай болсон зүйлс ч мөн байдаг ба хүн өөрийгөө хүчлэх, шагнаж урамшуулах, хэрэгтэй гэж ухамсарлах зэргээр тэр зүйлийг хийж дуусгадаг. Харин зарим үед хүсч байгаа хэдий ч хийж чадахгүй, нэг л тойрч гараад өөрөөсөө түлхээд байдаг үе бишгүй л олон байдаг. Хүн гэдэг нэг товчлуур дарахад л хүссэн юмаа хийдэг робот биш учраас үүнийг буруутгах арга байхгүй.

Сэтгэл судлаачид хүн гэдэг ойлгогдошгүй амьтны дотоод ертөнцийг  судлах явцдаа энэ талаар ч мөн орхигдуулсангүй. Тэд хүний доторхи хүсэл бадраагчийг судлаж  гадаад ба дотоод гэсэн хоёр төрөл байдгийг мэдэж авчээ. Энэхүү судлагаа сэтгэл зүйн өөр олон судлагаанд давхар ашиглагдана. Жишээлбэл хүнийг хэр их сэтгэл хангалуун аз жаргалтай амьдарч байгааг тогтоохын тулд  тэр хүнд дотоод ба гадаад өдөөгчийн аль нь давамгайлж байгааг хэмжинэ. Энэ удаад боловсрол эзэмших  тал дээр хүнд яаж нөлөөлдөг талаар дэлгэрэнгүй бичихийг зорилоо.

Дотоод өдөөгч нь хүний яг тэр зүйлийг хийх гэсэн чин хүслээс үүдэлтэй байдаг бол гадаад өдөөгч нь яг тэр зүйл биш тэр зүйлийг хийснээс үүсэх үр дүн зэргээс үүдэлтэй өдөөгчийг хэлнэ.

Лэппэр, Грийн, Нисбэт нар 1973 онд хийсэн нэгэн судалгаагаараа undermining effect буюу   ажлын бүтээмж буурах  үр дүнг батлажээ. Энэ нь дотоод өдөөгчөөр өдөөгдсөн зүйл ямар нэгэн эд зүйлсээр шагнагдах зэргээс болоод үр дүн буурахыг хэлнэ.

Тэрхүү судлагааг цэцэрлэгийн хүүхдүүдэд зураг зурах даалгавар өгөх туршилтаар батласан ба хүүхдүүдийг 3 хэсэгт хуваан эхний хэсэгт зураг зурвал чихэр өгнө шүү гэж хэлэн, 2 дахь хэсэгт  чихэр өгнө гэж хэлэлгүй зураг зураарай гэж хэлээд дараа нь чихэр өгч, 3 дахь хэсэгт зураг зуруулаад юу ч өгөөгүй байна. Эхний бүлгийнхэн дотроос 16 хүүхэд зураг зурж, 2 дахь бүлгээс  17 хүүхэд зураг зурж, 3 дахь хэсгээс  19 хүүхэд зураг зуржээ. Долоо хоногийн дараа 3 хэсэгт 3 ууланд нь яг ижилхэн даалгавар өгөхөд эхний бүлгээс 8 хүүхэд болж буурч, 2 дахь бүлэг 19 хүүхэд болж өсөн, 3 дахь бүлэг 16 хүүхэд болж буурчээ.

Энэ туршилтаас харахад хүүхдийг шагнаж урамшуулах хэлбэрээр урам зориг оруулах нь сайн хэрэг ч энэ нь дотоод өдөөгчийг үгүй болгох  муу талтай ба хэрвээ шагнаж урамшуулах хэрэгтэй бол үр дүн гарсны дараа шагнаж урамшуулах нь зүйтэй гэдгийг ойлгож болно.

Багш нарын заах арга дээшлэхэд болон хүүхдийн сурлага ба шинэ содон авъяасаа нээн илрүүлэхэд энэхүү судалгаа маш их хэрэг болсон байна. Олон зүйлийн учир шалтгаан ч үүний ачаар ойлгогджээ.
Хэдийгээр цэцэрлэгийн хүүхэд дээр хийгдсэн судалгаа ч гэсэн хүн өөрийнхөө ямар хүн болох суурийг бага насандаа ихэнхийг нь тавьдаг гэдгийг та санаарай.

Мөн таныг өөрийнхөө дотор буй өдөөгчийг аль хэлбэр нь болохыг нэг тунгаагаад үзэхийг санал болгож байна.
Та хичээлээ хийхдээ тэр зүйлийг чин сэтгэлээсээ сурахыг хүссэндээ юу эсвэл дүн, кредит, дипломын төлөө юу?
Та ажлаа хийхдээ тэр зүйлээ хийхийг хүссэн болохоор хийдэг үү аль эсвэл цалин, баталгаат ирээдүйн төлөө юу?
Та хүнтэй харьцахдаа тэр хүнийг чин сэтгэлээсээ сонирхсон болохоор уу аль эсвэл ямар нэгэн өөр ашиг сонирхлоор уу?

Энэхүү бодлууд таны өөрийнхөө тухай олж мэдэх дараагийн нэг том нээлттэй ч холбоотой байж мэдэх юм.

Обирин их сургууль
Д. Дуламсүрэн
2014.2.12

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