Шинжлэх ухаан Агаар ба түүний агуу их хүч
  • 2014/02/21
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 vattenfall-image_300Дэлхий дээр амьдрагч бидэнтэй зайлшгүй холбоотой нэгэн чухал биет бол хий буюу агаар билээ. Агаартай учраас салхи үүсдэг бөгөөд агааргүй гариг дээр салхи оршин тогтнодоггүй байна. Биетийн 3 төлөв (хий, шингэн, хатуу) дотроос хамгийн судлагдахад хэцүү нь мэдээж хийн биет юм. Учир нь хийн биет маань нүдэнд харагдахгүйн дээр байнгын тогтворгүйгээр оршдог бөгөөд одоо болтол хий биетийг 100% удирдаж чадах хэмжээнд хүрээгүй л байгаа билээ. Гэхдээ агаарын хүчтэй зайлшгүй холбогдох та бүхний мэдэх олон зүйлс байдаг. Жишээлбэл, онгоц, F1 машин, төрөл бүрийн бөмбөгнүүд гээд цаашлаад агаарын даралтыг ашигладаг төрөл бүрийн хөдөлгүүр зэрэг нь орох юм. Тэгвэл энэхүү нийтлэлдээ цөөхөн хэдхэн жишээг авч үзье.

  • Агаарт дүүлэгсэд (онгоц)

Бүхэл бүтэн аварга том метал эдээс бүтсэн зүйл агаарт урт хугацааны турш хөөрөн нисэх нь гайхалтай биш гэж үү?
757 wing vortexОрчин цагт онгоцгүйгээр бол бид бүгдийн амьдрал ямар байх байсан бол? Далайг гатлах гэж усан онгоцоор л явах болох байх. Хамгийн наад зах нь Японд сурдаг миний бие амралтаараа эх орондоо харих гэж ямар замыг хэр хугацаанд туулж байгаа бол? Гар утас,  интернет зэргийн цахим хөгжлийн дор нэр нь дарагдсан ч онгоц маань 100 гаруйхан жилийн түүхтэй билээ. Зөвхөн хүн зөөж байлдаанд оролцох бус бүр цаашлаад сансарт нисэх боломжийг хүртэл нээж өгсөн юм. Өнөө үед нисэгчгүй онгоц, хүний хүчээр нисэх онгоц, нарны зайгаар нисдэг онгоц гээд маш олон төрлөөр хөгжиж байна. Үүнд дуунаас хурдан онгоц зэргийн тухай дурьдах илүүц биз. Онгоц нь агаарыг хөөрөх хүчний эх үүсвэр болгон ашигладаг байх нь.

  • Газраар мөлхөгч (F1 машин ба суман галт тэрэг)

formula1-gp-liveТаазан дээгүүр машин явж чадна гэвэл худлаа гэж эсэргүүцэх хүн олон байх биз. Тэгвэл F1 машин нь асар хурдан (одоогоор цагт 369.9 км хурдалсан нь уралдааны үед гаргасан хамгийн өндөр хурд) давхих үед агаарт хөөрөх үйлчлэл үйлчилдэг байх нь. Тийм учраас агаарт хөөргөхгүй гэсэн үүднээс агаарын хүчийг ашиглан доошоогоо үйлчлэх хүчийг үйсгэхгүй бол болохгүй. Хурдны машинд суурилагдсан байх уг далавч шиг эд маань ийм л зориулалттай. Машин үйлдвэрлэгчдийн бас нэгэн өрсөлддөг салбар бол яах аргагүй машин уралдааны талбар билээ.

Мөн сүүлийн үед хөгжилтэй орнуудын хэрэглээ болсон суман галт тэрэг. superkomach001Суман галт тэрэг нь соронз ашигладаг. Онгоцны хамартай галт тэрэг л гэж харагддаг энэхүү төмөр замын онгоц маань өндөр хурд гаргах үед агаарын эсэргүүцэл гэгч зүйлтэй зайлшгүй учирдаг. 2003 онд хийсэн нэгэн туршилтаар цагт 581 км хүртэл хурд гаргасан газар дээрх онгоцны маань хамарны хэлбэр хамгийн чухал. Агаарын хүчийг сааруулах шаардлага энэхүү жишээнээс тод харагдана.

  • Агаараас энерги рүү

Герман улс 2022 он гэхэд цөмийн эх үүсвэргүй болохыг зорьж байгаа билээ. Өнөө үед цөмийн эх үүсвэр дээр маш олон мэтгэлцэх зүйл гардаг. Тэгвэл энергийн эх үүсвэрийн нэгэн төрөл бол яалт ч байхгүй салхин цахилгаан станц. Салхин сэнсний далавчны тоо нь их байх тусам салхи хүлээн авах талбай нь том болох ч үүсэх энерги нь бага болдог. Тиймээс том хэмжээний сэнс маань ойролцоогоор 3 далавчтай байх нь элбэг. Салхины хүчийг хэрхэн ашигт үйлийн коеффицент өндөр байдлаар ашиглах вэ гэдэг нь далавчны хэлбэрээс л шалтгаалж байгаа юм.

  • Агаарыг халааж бас даралтыг нь ихэсгэхүй

blog-0487524001382079334Бүх механик эдлэлд хөдөлгүүр (цилиндр) гэгч зүйл байдаг билээ. Термодинамикийн хуулийг сайн мэдэх хүн бол шууд л ойлгох уг бүтэц нь машины хүч, онгоцны жет хөдөлгүүр, цахилгаан станцын гол ухагдахуун юм. Мэдээж хэрэг бид бүхэн 2 алгаа хавсраад агаарыг шахаж үл чадах ч, шахагдсан агаар асар их хүчтэй. Саяхан 1-р сарын 9-ний өдөр Японы Мицүбиши компанийн химийн үйлдвэрт гарсан осол нь 5 хүний амь насыг авч одсон билээ. Өндөр даралттай агаар нь асар хүчтэй тийрэлтийг үүсгэдэг байх нь. Дээр дурьдсан онгоц нь өндөр хурд гаргахын тулд агаарын даралтыг тийрэлт болгон ашигладаг билээ.

 Агаарыг энерги болон хүч болгон ашиглах тухай жаахан ч гэсэн мэдлэг болсон болов уу гэж найдаж байна. Бидэнтэй зэрэгцэн орших энэхүү нүдэнд үзэгдэхгүй, гарт баригдахгүй биет маань бидний төсөөлж буйгаас хэд дахин илүү хүчтэй зүйл мөнөөс мөн билээ. Энэхүү хүчийг хэрхэн зөв зохистой ашиглах тал дээр судалгаанууд одоо болтол үргэлжилсээр байна. Өөрөөр хэлбэл агаарын шинж чанарыг нүдээр хараад шинжиж чадаж байгаа ч баттай тоо баримтаар үнэлж чадаагүй л байна.

2014.2.21

И. Өгөөмөр

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