Шинжлэх ухаан Автомат жолоодлоготой машин хаяанд иржээ-2
  • 2014/11/20
  • 179
  • 15

2014 оны 10-р сарын 23-ны нийтлэлдээ автомат жолоодлоготой машины тухай тун товчхон бичээд өнгөрсөн билээ. Тиймээс энэ удаадаа түүний үргэлжлэл болгож, энэхүү машин маань хэрхэн өөрөө өөрийгөө жолоодох тухай техник талаас нь дэлгэрэнгүй авч үзье. Та юуны өмнө эхлээд өмнөх нийтлэлийг маань уншсан нь дээр байх.

Автомат жолоодлоготой машин хаяанд иржээ-1

За тэгэхээр шууд л нарийн тайлбар уруугаа оръё.

Жолоо барихад үндсэндээ 3 чухал зүйл байдаг. Эдгээр нь “хүлээн авах, шийдэх, үйлдэл хийх” юм. Жишээлбэл, машины урдуур хүүхэд гэнэт гарч ирэх үед, эхлээд та хүүхэд байгааг олж харна (ХҮЛЭЭН АВНА), дараа нь хэт ойрхон тул тормоз гишгэнэ гэж бодох (ШИЙДЭХ), тэгээд тормозоо гишгинэ (ҮЙЛДЭЛ ХИЙХ).

Тэгвэл автомат жолоодлого маань хэрхэн ажиллах вэ?
Ямар ч байсан хүний нүдийг орлох камер юм уу, урдаа байгаа зүйлийг мэдрэх багаж хэрэгтэй. Тэгээд үүнийгээ ашиглаж урдаа байгаа зүйлээ мэдрэх (ХҮЛЭЭН АВАХ). Дараа нь урдаа байгаа зүйлээ хэр хол байгааг болон өөрийн болон урдаа байгаа зүйлийн хурд зэргийг тооцоолон тормоз авах эсэхээ шийдэх (ШИЙДЭХ). Эцэст нь шаардлагатай бол хурдаа хасна (ҮЙЛДЭЛ ХИЙХ).

Тэгвэл компьютер маань эргэн тойрноо ажиглах, нөхцөл байдалд яг таг таарсан шийдвэр гаргах тал дээр хүнээс муу ч, нэгэнт шийдсэн үед үйлдэл хийх хугацаагаараа бол хамаагүй хурдан юм. Жишээ нь “тормозлох” гэсэн шийдвэр гаргасны дараах хүний тормозоо гишгэх хүртэлх хугацаа нь машины өөрөө зогсох хурднаас харьцангуй удаан юм. Цаашлаад андуурч гишгэх, аюултай гэж бодон хэт их тормозлох зэрэг тал дээр хүн төрөлхтөн бид компьютероос дутагдалтай.

Автомат жолоодлогын бусад давуу талыг өмнөх нийтлэл дээр бичсэн байгаа билээ. Тиймээс энэ удаагийн нийтлэлдээ техникийн талаас нь тайлбарыг бага зэрэг хийж, ямар зүйл дээр асуудалтай байгааг танилцуулъя. Машин нь эргэн тойрноо таних үндсэн 2 арга зам байдаг. “Өөрөө төвтэй” ба “Нэгдсэн сүлжээтэй”. Өөрөө төвтэй гэдэг нь, өөрөө замаа мэдрээд, урд юм гарч ирвэл хурдаа хасах эсвэл эргэх зэрэг зохих арга хэмжээг авна. Өөрөөр хэлбэл машин хооронд болон хүн машин хоорондын мэдээлэл солилцоо гэж байхгүй. Харин “Нэгдсэн сүлжээтэй” гэдэг нь, бүх машинууд хоорондоо холбогдоно гэсэн үг юм. Мөн гудамжинд байрлуулсан мэдрэгчээр явган зорчигчдын мэдээллийг ч авна. Ингэснээр жишээ нь манайхаар бол, баруун 4 зам түгжрээтэй байгааг урьдчилан мэдэж Гэсэр сүмээр явах гэсэн сонголтыг хийх юм. “Гүүгл” компани маань голдуу өөрөөрөө мэдрээд өөрөөрөө явах тал руу судалгаа хийж байгаа бол Японы “Тоёота” компани энэ хоёрыг хослуулсан машины судалгааг хийж байна.

Өөрөөсөө мэдэрдэг технологийн жишээ аль хэдийн энгийн машинд суурилагджээ. Энэ нь автомат тормоз юм (AAC: Adaptive Cruise Control). Та доорх бичлэгийг үзээд л ойлгоно байх.

Энэхүү 2 арга замыг хэрэгжүүлэхэд дараах асуудлууд тус тус дэвшигдэж байгаа юм.

Өөрөө төвтэй

  • Volvo-self-driving-car-537x353Бороо цас болон бусад цаг агаарын хүнд нөхцөл, мөн шөнийн цагаар эргэн тойрноо мэдрэх хүндрэлтэй байгаа.
  • Яг эгц хажуунаас машин болон хүн гэнэт гарч ирэхэд арга хэмжээ авах тодорхой цаг байхгүй. Өөрөөр хэлбэл буланд байгаа зүйлийг мэдрэхгүй.

Нэгдсэн сүлжээтэй холбогдсон тохиолдолд 

  • google_carБүх машиныг сүлжээнд хамруулах шаардлагатай.
  • Бүх замыг уг сүлжээнд холбоно гэвэл асар их зардал гарна. Тиймээс одоогоор түгжрэл ихтэй хэсэг, сургуулийн бүс гэх мэт хэсэг замд л хэрэгжүүлбэл ашигтай.

Ямартаа ч асуудал бол тийм ч олон биш байгаа бөгөөд шийдэх хангалттай боломжтой байгаа юм. Энэхүү 2 асуудлыг бүрэн шийдэж өгвөл, бидэнд үнэндээ жолооны курс хэрэггүй болох юм. Гэхдээ мэдээж хуулиар зөвшөөрөгдөх гэж бас удна байх.

Одоогийн байдлаар, машинд зориулсан автомат технологи нь бага багаар суурилагдаж эхлээд байна. Хэрвээ энэхүү чиглэл нь улам хөгжвөл, жолоо барих чадваргүй хүмүүсийг жолоо барих боломжтой болгохоос гадна ослын тоог ч эрс багасгаж чадах юм.

Эцэст нь, техник технологи хэр хол хөгжвөл зүгээр вэ? гэдэг асуултыг өөрт тань үлдээе…

И. Өгөөмөр

2014.11.20

Ашигласан материал:

  1. “Newton” сэтгүүл, 2014 оны 1-р сарын дугаар, хуудас 14-21
  2. Volvo Developing Accident-Avoiding Self-Driving Cars for the Year 2020
    http://inhabitat.com/volvo-developing-accident-avoiding-self-driving-cars-for-the-year-2020/
  3. Blind man drives Google’s self-driving car
    https://www.powderkegwebdesign.com/blind-man-drives-googles-self-driving-car/

Сэтгэгдэлүүд ( 15)

  • yeezy - 2018/11/04

    I as well as my pals have been digesting the excellent tactics on your web site while the sudden came up with a horrible feeling I never thanked the web blog owner for those strategies. The young men were so very interested to study them and now have in fact been using those things. Thank you for simply being indeed kind and also for picking this form of incredible subjects millions of individuals are really desperate to understand about. Our own honest apologies for not saying thanks to you sooner.

  • Adidas NMD Women Mesh Surface White Rose - 2018/11/04

    I and my friends happened to be going through the great tips and hints found on your web blog while then developed a horrible feeling I had not thanked the blog owner for those secrets. Those guys appeared to be totally excited to read through all of them and have now in truth been loving them. Appreciate your being quite helpful as well as for deciding on certain decent resources millions of individuals are really desirous to understand about. My honest regret for not expressing gratitude to you earlier.

  • golden goose sneakers - 2018/11/04

    I simply wanted to send a quick note in order to thank you for those marvelous tactics you are giving out on this website. My long internet search has at the end of the day been recognized with good insight to write about with my close friends. I 'd assume that we site visitors actually are definitely fortunate to exist in a useful community with so many outstanding professionals with very helpful pointers. I feel rather privileged to have used your entire web site and look forward to some more entertaining minutes reading here. Thank you once again for a lot of things.

  • jordan 13 - 2018/11/03

    I simply had to thank you so much again. I do not know what I would have achieved in the absence of the actual tricks discussed by you regarding my theme. Certainly was a very intimidating matter in my view, nevertheless considering a skilled technique you dealt with it forced me to cry for joy. Now i am happy for this advice and believe you know what a powerful job your are doing instructing many others all through your web page. I am sure you've never met any of us.

  • lacoste polo - 2018/11/01

    I must show my passion for your kind-heartedness supporting all those that require assistance with this important area of interest. Your very own dedication to passing the message around appears to be exceptionally advantageous and have consistently empowered associates just like me to arrive at their pursuits. Your personal warm and friendly guide implies a whole lot to me and a whole lot more to my colleagues. Thanks a ton; from each one of us.

  • goyard bags - 2018/11/01

    Thanks for all of the labor on this blog. My aunt loves setting aside time for research and it is simple to grasp why. A number of us notice all concerning the dynamic manner you deliver functional suggestions via the web site and in addition increase contribution from other people on this point so our own child has always been being taught so much. Take pleasure in the rest of the new year. You're the one performing a powerful job.

  • adidas stan smith uk - 2018/10/31

    A lot of thanks for all of your labor on this site. My mum really likes setting aside time for research and it's easy to understand why. My partner and i hear all concerning the powerful mode you provide very useful tactics via your web site and in addition encourage contribution from some others on that area of interest while our own daughter is actually understanding a lot. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the year. You are always conducting a powerful job.

  • Adidas NMD Men Women Mesh Surface Navy White - 2018/10/30

    I wanted to put you a little note just to thank you over again regarding the beautiful things you have featured on this site. It is simply extremely open-handed with people like you to present unhampered what exactly some people might have advertised for an e-book to end up making some dough for their own end, even more so considering the fact that you could possibly have tried it if you ever desired. These guidelines likewise acted like the great way to be sure that some people have similar eagerness like mine to find out more and more around this issue. I am sure there are a lot more enjoyable opportunities in the future for individuals that look into your blog post.

  • kyrie shoes - 2018/10/29

    I simply needed to thank you so much once again. I do not know what I would've implemented in the absence of the actual creative concepts provided by you relating to my theme. It had been a real frightful scenario for me personally, nevertheless looking at the very specialized approach you managed it took me to cry over joy. I am happier for the advice and as well , wish you really know what a powerful job you have been doing teaching the rest with the aid of your webblog. Most likely you have never come across any of us.

  • nike react - 2018/10/29

    Thanks for all your valuable efforts on this web page. Betty loves participating in research and it is easy to understand why. Most people learn all of the lively way you create very useful techniques by means of the website and increase response from other ones on the topic and my girl is in fact learning a great deal. Enjoy the remaining portion of the new year. You are doing a very good job.

  • calvin klein outlet - 2018/10/28

    I actually wanted to develop a simple message so as to express gratitude to you for all the magnificent tactics you are sharing on this site. My time consuming internet look up has now been compensated with reliable ideas to write about with my friends. I would repeat that many of us website visitors actually are unquestionably fortunate to live in a magnificent community with so many lovely individuals with good guidelines. I feel very happy to have discovered your entire web page and look forward to many more excellent minutes reading here. Thanks again for everything.

  • adidas ultra boost - 2018/10/27

    I enjoy you because of your entire hard work on this web page. My daughter really loves engaging in research and it's really easy to understand why. A number of us notice all relating to the compelling form you offer good guides on this website and attract response from visitors on that area of interest and our girl has always been understanding a great deal. Have fun with the remaining portion of the new year. You're the one performing a superb job.

  • michael kors outlet - 2018/10/26

    I'm just commenting to let you understand what a exceptional experience my friend's princess undergone studying your web site. She discovered so many pieces, which included what it is like to have a wonderful giving mood to make the others just learn about some advanced issues. You really surpassed my expected results. I appreciate you for rendering these powerful, dependable, edifying and unique tips on the topic to Evelyn.

  • yeezy boost 350 - 2018/10/25

    I simply wanted to write down a simple remark in order to express gratitude to you for all of the marvelous pointers you are writing at this website. My incredibly long internet lookup has finally been honored with pleasant tips to write about with my family. I 'd suppose that we site visitors are quite endowed to exist in a fabulous place with so many marvellous individuals with beneficial ideas. I feel truly fortunate to have seen your website page and look forward to really more cool moments reading here. Thank you once more for everything.

  • adidas nmd - 2018/10/25

    I would like to express appreciation to the writer for rescuing me from this setting. Just after checking throughout the internet and seeing advice which are not helpful, I thought my entire life was gone. Existing without the strategies to the issues you have fixed as a result of this site is a crucial case, and the ones which may have in a wrong way affected my career if I had not noticed your website. Your own personal natural talent and kindness in dealing with a lot of things was important. I don't know what I would have done if I hadn't come upon such a thing like this. It's possible to at this moment look ahead to my future. Thanks a lot so much for this expert and sensible guide. I won't think twice to suggest the sites to any person who ought to have support about this subject.

Санал болгож байна

© 2018 | Ихнүдэн