Эдийн засаг Грекийн эдийн засгийн хямрал
  • 2015/05/20
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    Энэ сарын 11-нд Европын Холбоо (ЕХ) Грекийн зээлийн асуудлаар Брюссельд хуралдлаа. Уг хурал 2 долоо хоногийн өмнө зохион байгуулагдсан ЕХ-ны сайд нарын хуралтай харьцуулахад уур амьсгалын хувьд ширүүн болж өнгөрлөө. ЕХ-ны талаас  Грекийг төсвийн шинэчлэл хийхгүй тохиолдолд зээлээ дахин үргэлжлүүлэхгүй байр суурьтай байгаа юм. Энэ нь Грек улсын засгийн газар төсвийн шинэчлэлийн хуулиа өргөн бариагүйтэй холбоотой. Хурлын дараа ЕХ-ны орнууд ч мѳн адил ѳѳрсдийн байр сууриа ар араасаа илэрхийлж эхэлсэн. Дараагийн Хэлэлцээр тавдугаар сарын сүүлээр зохион байгуулагдах бөгөөд зээлийн асуудлыг шийдвэрлэх томоохон хурал болох юм.

Хэрвээ тус хурлаар ярилцах асуудал Грекийн талд шийдэгдэхгүй бол  Грек 6-р сарын сүүлээр ЕХ-нд 7 тэрбум 200 сая евро тѳлѳх болох юм.

 Түүнээс гадна тус хурлаас ѳмнѳ Грекийн засгийн газарт тѳрийн албан хаагчдын цалин  болон тэтгэврийн мѳнгѳ болох 2.5 тэрбум еврог олгох шаардлагатай байгаа. Грекийн хамгийн том сөрөг хүчин болох Ардчилсан нам энэ сарын 11-ний хэвлэлийн хурлаараа засгийн газраа “Худлаа ярьж дууслаа. Манай орны эдийн засаг бөглөрч байна. Улсын өр нэмэгдэж, хяналтгүй нөхцөл байдал үүсч байна“ гэж шүүмжиллээ.

Грекийн ард иргэдийн улсдаа итгэх итгэл суларсаар 

   Та Афины төв гудамжаар явбал, бурханы хөшөөний ойролцоо байрлах үймээн самууны улмаас хаагдсан дэлгүүрүүд болон кино театрыг харах болно. Нүдэнд өртөх зүйл нь “Зарж байна“ гэсэн бичигнүүд л байна.

Афин хотын иргэн үнэт эдлэлийн дэлгүүрийн эзэн хэлэхдээ: “Хотын талбайн жижиг модон сандал дээр бэлэг дурсгалын зүйл л худалдаалж байна. Юутай их гаслан бэ“ гэжээ. Өвөг эцэг, аав нь 1-р зэрэглэлийн үнэт зүйлс худалдаалж ирсэн түүний хувьд одоогоор жилийн орлого нь 10 жилийн өмнөх орлоготой харьцуулахад 10  хувьд нь ч хүрэхгүй болоод байна. Грект үнэт эдлэл авах бололцоотой хүн нэн ховор болоод байна. Хагас зуун жилийн түүхтэй  компаниуд ч бизнесийн шийдвэрлэх цаг үе дээрээ тулж ирээд байна. Бизнес эрхлэгчдийн хувьд борлуулалтын бууралт нь дан ганц асуудал биш. Түүнээс гадна эргэлтийн хөрөнгөө зээлээр нөхөх боломжгүй болоод байна. Учир нь банкны зээлийн хүү жилийн 10-аас 15 хувь байгаа бөгөөд энэ нь жирийн бизнес эрхлэгчдийн хувьд буцаан төлөхөд их хүндрэлтэй зээлийн нөхцөл юм. Банкны зээлийн хүү ийм өндөр байгаагийн нэг шалтгаан  нь дотоодын ард иргэдийн хадгаламж гадагшаа урсаж байгаатай холбоотой.

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Дотоодын банкны хадгаламжийн  нийт үнийн дүн нь 2012 оны 2-р сараас хойш гурван сарын хугацаанд 160.2 тэрбум доллараас 138.5 тэрбум доллар болж 13.5 хувиар буурсан. Энэ нь ард иргэд төв банкиндаа мөнгөө хадгалуулахаас эмээж буйг илэрхийлж байгаа юм.

Ажилгүйдлийн түвшин 25 хувийг давлаа.

Зах зээлд эргэлдэх мөнгөний хэмжээ эрс буурч, зээл төлөлт хугацаа хэтэрч байна. Жижиг дунд үйлдвэрлэл эрхлэгчид өр төлбөрөө хугацаандаа төлж чадахгүй байдал өдөр тутмын үзэгдэл болж, 2008 оноос хойш нийт аж ахуй нэгжийн 25 хувь нь  дампуураад байна. Ажилгүйдлийн түвшин 25 хувийг давсан нь ЕХ-ны хамгийн ѳндѳр үзүүлэлт болоод байна.

Онцгой байдлын нөөцөөсөө ОУВС-д өрөө төллѳѳ.

    Грекийн засгийн газар ОУВС-д өрөө буцаан төлөхийн тулд ОУВС-д хадгалуулж байсан мөнгөө ашиглахаар боллоо. Онцгой байдлын нөөц хөрөнгө гэдэг нь нэн шаардлагатай үед ашиглагдах мөнгө юм. Грек нь энэ сарын 11-нд ОУВС-д  750 сая евро төлсөн ба онцгой байдлын хөрөнгөөс 660 сая нь гарсан байна.

 
Ашигласан матерал
Японы эдийн засгийн сонин 2015 оны 5-р сарын 13 дугаар

Өсөхбаярын Үүлэн
Шиншү их сургууль Эдийн засгийн факультет, 2-р курс
2015.5.20

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