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  • 2015/12/07
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2011 оны 11 сард Нью-Йорк-д зохион байгуулагдсан TED /Technology Entertainment Design гэх үгийн товчлол бөгөөд 1984 онд Дэлхий нийтэд олон улсын булан бүрээс шинэ санааг түгээхээр байгуулагдсан илтгэлийн талбар юм./-н тайзан дээр Америкийн нийгмийн зан төлөв байдлын эдийн засагч /Behavioral economist/ Дани Голдстэйн /Dan Goldstein/ нь “Таны одоогийн болон ирээдүйн хоорондох тулаан” /The battle between your present and future self/ гэх их сонирхолтой 15 минутын яриаг хийсэн байна. Тэрээр яриа дундаа 19-р зууны Английн эдийн засагч Нассау Виллиам Сениор /Nassau William Senior/-ын “Бидний хүчин дор буй одоо шууд авч болох таашаалаас татгалзан, шууд үр дүнгээс илүүтэйгээр илүү алс холыг зорих нь хүн төрөлхтний хүсэл зоригийн төлөөх хүчин зүтгэл дундаас хамгийн дарамттай, бэрх нь болой” /To abstain from the enjoyment which is in our power, or to seek distant rather than immediate results, are among the most painful exertions of the human will./ хэмээн өгүүлсэн үгийг иш татаж байв. Миний хувьд шууд санал нийлнэ. Залуу хүнд хамгийн хэцүү даваа бол өөрийгөө ялах гэж бодож байна. Учир нь цаг хугацаа болон боломж, тэдгээрийг ашиглах хүч чадал байхад, энэ бүгдийг хэрхэн зөв зохицуулах вэ гэдэг маш том сорилт юм. Хүн бүхэн ямарваа нэг зүйлээр дэлхийн тавцан дээр гарахыг ил болон нууцхан хүсдэг. Бидний зарим нь дэлхийн хэмжээний анхны Монгол брэндийг бий болгохыг мөрөөдөж,Олимпоос алтан медал авах, мөн Нобелийн шагнал хүртэхийг зорьж байдаг. Гэхдээ эдгээр өндөр зорилгууд нь одоогийнхоо хүртэж болох жижиг хүслүүдээс татгалзахыг шаарддаг билээ. Дуртай төрлийн кинонуудаа ханатлаа үзэж, дуртай номоо шөнөжин уншихаас татгалзуулж, бүр зарим үед найз нөхөд, гэр бүлтэйгээ өнгөрүүлэх хугацааг хүртэл багасгахад хүргэдэг билээ. Турахыг хүсч байгаа хүн өдөрт 1 цаг гүйхэд л тодорхой үр дүнгээ өгнө. Өдөр болгон 1 цаг гаргаад идэвхтэй гүйнэ гэдэг бие махбодийн хувьд боломжгүй зүйл биш ээ. Гэхдээ бидэнд 1 цаг гүйх үү? эсвэл түүний оронд дуртай шоколад, амттанаа идэнгээ дуртай телевизийн шоуныхаа хоёр, гурван ангийг үзэх үү гэдэг сонголт гарч ирдэгт асуудал байгаа юм.

Дани Голдстэйны хэлж буйгаар энэ үед ихэнх хүмүүсийн авдаг арга хэмжээ бол “ѳѳрийгѳѳ хорих” юм. Юу вэ гэхээр, та турахыг хүсэж байлаа гэхэд гурилан бүтээгдэхүүн, чихэр, шоколад гэх мэт амттанаа хорих явдлыг хэлж байгаа юм. Ѳѳрийгѳѳ хорино гэдэг бол та хэдий хүсч байгаа ч хийхгүй байх явдал юм. Хүсэхгүй хирнээ хийж буй зүйл гэдэг хэзээ нэгэн цагт шантрах нь олонтаа. Тийм учир Дани Голдстэйны хэрхэн ѳѳрийгѳѳ хорихгүйгээр “чихэр шоколаднаас татгалзах” ирээдүйгээ бодсон сонголт хийж болох вэ? хэмээн ѳѳрѳѳсѳѳ асуусан байна. Тэрээр, хэрвээ ирээдүйг илүү тѳсѳѳлѳхѳд дѳхѳм, одоогийн үйлдэл ирээдүйд хэрхэн шууд нѳлѳѳлѳхийг харуулбал магадгүй бид ирээдүйгээ илүү ухамсарлан, холыг харсан сонголт хийж магадгүй гэж бодсон байгаа юм. Энэхүү гол философи дээрээ үндэслэн хамтрагчтайгаа нийлэн тэтгэврийн хадгаламжаас хамааран ирээдүйн та сард хэдий хир хэмжээний тэтгэвэртэй, мѳн тухайн хэмжээний тэтгэврээс хамааран ямар орон сууцад амьдарч болохыг харуулсан байгаа юм. Энэхүү программаас та одоо олж байгаагаа сайн гамнан, Варрен Баффэт /Warren Buffet/-ын хэлснээр “Үрээд үлдсэнийг нь хадгалах бус, Хадгалаад үлдсэнийг нь үрдэг” болсон цагт таныг ирээдүйд хүлээж буй хѳгшин та, эрүүл энх аз жаргалтай амьдрах болно. “Залуудаа махаа зулгаавал нас дээр гарсан хойноо шѳл уунаа гэж” /Б. Ринчен/.

Гэхдээ энэхүү программ бол ганцхан л тод жишээ юм. Бусад зүйл дээр ч мѳн адил, та хэрвээ ирээдүйгээ маш тодоор тѳсѳѳлѳн, ѳмнѳѳ том зорилго тавин түүн рүүгээ зүтгэх аваас танд ѳѳрийгѳѳ хорих шаардлага гарахгүй. Нэгэнт ухамсарлан, хүссэн зүйл рүүгээ тэмүүлж буй хүн та ѳѳрийн эрхгүй л хямгач хүн болсон байна. Та цаанаасаа л нэг л амттан идэхийг хүсэхгүй болно. Цаг хугацаа маш үнэтэй бас бага санагдаж эхэлнэ. Та хүсэл болон зорилгоо нэгтгэж чадсан гэдгээ мэдрэх болно. Алив, цѳмѳѳрѳѳ нэг ѳѳрийн хүсч буй ирээдүйгээ нүдэнд харагдтал тѳсѳѳлѳн, аль эсвэл зурж, бичиж үзье!

Одоо цагийн дайчин, ирээдүйд буй дайчингаас хамаагүй хүчтэй, эрх мэдэлтэй. Учир нь тэрээр одоо цагт бодитоор бий бөгөөд бараг л бүх зүйлийг гартаа атгаж байгаа. Гэхдээ сонголтыг биш. Сонголтыг одоо үе бас ирээдүй цагийн эзэн та атгаж буй.

М. Эрдэнэ-Очир
Шиншюү их сургууль
Эдийн засгийн факултет 3-р курс
2015.10.12

Ашигласан материал:

  1. Дани Голдстэйн /Dan Goldstein/ ,”Таны одоогийн болон ирээдүйн хоорондох тулаан” /The battle between your present and future self/

http://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_goldstein_the_battle_between_your_present_and_future_self

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