Хувь хүний хөгжил Сармагчин шиг дуурайж, мал шиг сүргээрээ амьдрахуй!
  • 2016/06/06
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 Юун мал сүрэг, сармагчин шинпанзе болоод явчихав? Тэр тусмаа хүмүүн биднийгээ тэдэн шиг амьдар гэнэ үү? хэмээн бодож суугаа танд “оюун ухаант” гэгдэх хүний оюун ухаангүй мэт авирлах зан араншин, тэдгээрийн талаарх сонирхолтой туршилт, судалгаануудыг хуваалцаж байна.
Нэгэн удаа интернэтээр аялж явахдаа сэтгэлзүйн сонин хачин судалгаануудын талаар уншиж суулаа. Тэр дунд Бобо хүүхэлдэй гэгч 1961 онд  Станфорд их сургуулийн сэтгэл судлалын профессор Албэрт Бандура-н удирдсан туршилтыг олж уншсан юм. Ерөнхийдөө туршилтаар хүний зан ааш генээр удамшдаг биш, эргэн тойрныхоо хүмүүсийн хийж буй үйлдлийг даган дуурайх замаар бүрэлдэн бий болдог гэдгийг харуулах судалгаа байсан юм. Товчхондоо бидний хэлдгээр хүчирхийлэл хүчирхийлэгчийг бий болгодог гэдэг шиг ууртай дээрэлхүү нэгнийг харж өссөн хүүхэд уур ууцаартай нэгэн болж хувирахад, найрсаг эелдэг нэгнийг харж өссөн хүүхэд илүү эелдэг нэгэн болж төлөвших хандлагатай байдаг байна.
Туршилтын үйл явцыг энгийнээр тайлбарлаваас хүүхдүүдийг хэсэг бүлэг болгон хуваагаад, бүлэг бүрт шилэн өрөөнд хэрхэн том хүн Бобо гэгч том хүүхэлдэйтэй тоглож байгааг 10 минутын турш харуулна. Нэг бүлэгт нь хэрхэн том хүн хүүхэлдэйг зодож, цохиж, дэвсэж унагаан дээрэлхэж байгааг харуулахад, нөгөө бүлэг хүүхдүүдэд хүүхэлдэйтэй энгийнээр баярлан тоглох том хүнийг үзүүлжээ. 10 минут ажиглуулсны дараа хүүхдүүдийг тоглоомтой өрөөнд ганцааранг нь үлдээхэд ихэнх тохиолдолд хүүхэд бүр өөрсдийн харсан том хүний үйлдийг дуурайн хийцгээж байв. Тэгэхээр хүн ер нь хүссэн хүсээгүй багаасаа л сармагчинтай адил хүмүүсээс хуулбарлан дуурайх гэдэг онцлогтой аж.

Picture2Өөр нэгэн туршилтыг уншигч танд хуваалцваас, хүн хэрхэн эргэн тойрон, нэн ялангуяа олонхын санаа бодолд өөрийн эрхгүй автагдаж байдгийг судалсан сонирхолтой судалгаа болно. Польш гаралтай сэтгэл судлаач Соломон Аш-н туршилт их энгийн. Таны өмнө доорх 3 шулуунаас зүүн талд байгаа шулуунтай адилхан урттай шулууныг сонгох даалгавар өгнө. Хэрвээ та ганцаараа байсан бол төвөггүйхэн зөв шулууныг сонгочихно.

Picture3

 Харин хажууд чинь жишээлбэл долоон хүн суулгаад (цаанаасаа аль нэг буруу хариултыг сонгох ёстой бэлтгэгдсэн жүжигчид) ам нийлүүлэн буруу хариултыг хэлж эхлэхэд, хэд хэдэн удаагийн асуултын дараагаас та өөрийн эрхгүй өөртөө эргэлзэж, зөв биш тэдгээр хүмүүсийн дурдсан буруу шулууныг сонгож эхэлсэн байдаг. Ингээд харахаар хүн тодорхой хэмжээгээр эргэн тойрондоо өөрийн эрхгүй шингэн орж, нэг талаараа сүргийн гадна биш сүргийн  нэг хэсэг нь болчихоод байдаг чанартай ажээ.
Харин гэтэл олон нийтэд ерөнхий хэн нэгнийг дуурайх, ямар нэгэн зүйлд автах гэсэн талаар сөрөг ойлголт, хандлагууд их байгаад байх шиг санагддаг. Өөрийнхөөрөө биш өрөөл бусдыг дуурайлаа, муу зуршилтай хүмүүстэй нийлж, буруу зүйлд уруу татагдлаа гэх мэтчилэн. Гэхдээ ер нь хэн нэгнийг дуурайж, эргэн тойрондоо уусна гэдэг заавал муу байх ёстой гэж үү? Ерөөс бид байгалийн жамаараа эргэн тойрон, харсан үзсэн зүйлсээсээ хуулбарлан суралцаж, автан уусаж байдаг бол… Яагаад давуу талаа болгон ашиглаж болохгүй гэж!
Жишээлбэл, өөрийнхөө хүндлэн харж явдаг, энэ хүн шиг болох юмсан гэдэг “role model”-оо өөрийгөө хөгжүүлэх бодит гарын авлага болгон ашиглаад үзвэл ямар вэ? Хэрхэн тэр хүн бодож, ажиллаж, суралцаж, ямар эерэг дадал зуршилтай байдаг гээд нэгт нэгэнгүй судлаад нэг харая. Хүн гэдэг өндөг шиг өөгүй байна гэж байхгүй тул тунгаан бодож өөрөө шүүлтүүр хийн тухайн “role model”-оосоо юуг нь сурмаар байгаагаа тодорхойлон, өөр дээрээ хуулбарлаад авцгаая. Хуулбарлаж авахдаа өөрийн онцлогтоо тааруулан бүр илүү сайн хувилбарыг бий болгож ч болно шүү дээ.
Харин эргэн тойрондоо уусахын хувьд ямар зан чанартай, ямар чадвартай хүн болмоор байна? тэр чанаруудыг чинь агуулсан хүмүүсийн дэргэд илүү цагийг өнгөрүүлээд нэг үзээрэй. Хүн юун дээр төвлөрөнө, түүнийгээ өөрөө мэдэлгүй өөр рүүгээ татаж байдаг шиг, нэг л мэдэхэд хажууд байгаа хүнийхээ сайхан зан чанар, чадвараас ихийг ойлгож суралцсан байх болно биш гэж үү!
Эцэс төгсгөлд нь хүн болгонд байгаа сайхан чанар дээр анхаарлаа төвлөрүүлэн, уулзсан харсан бүх хүмүүсээсээ суралцаж болох гайхалтай “хуулбарлах, уусах” чадвар байгааг битгий мартаарай хэмээн энэхүү нийтлэлээ дуусгая.

Д. Түвшин
Рицүмэйкан иx сургууль
2016 он 5 сарын 28

Ашигласан материал

  1. Бобо Долл Туршилт. Explorable.
    https://explorable.com/bobo-doll-experiment
  2. The Bobo Beatdown. Crash Course
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=128Ts5r9NRE
  3. Аш-н Туршилт. Simple Psychology.
    http://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html
  4. The Asch Experiment. Question Everything.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qA-gbpt7Ts8

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