Шинжлэх ухаан Аутофагигийн нээлт Нобелийн шагнал хүртлээ
  • 2016/10/03
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press-med-50 Өнөөдрөөс эхлэн 2016 оны нобелийн шагналтнууд тодорч эхэллээ. Хамгийн эхний зарлагдсан шагнал нь Физиологи-анагаах ухааны төрөл бөгөөд өнөөдөр буюу 10/3ны 18:30д зарлагдлаа. Уг шагналыг Японы эрдэмтэн Осүми Ёшинори (Yoshinori Ohsumi)гуай аутофаги (Autophagy)-ийн үзэгдлийг молекулын төвшинд нээснээрээ хүртлээ.

 Аутофаги гэдэг нь өөрөө өөрийгөө идэх гэсэн утгатай бөгөөд эс нь шим тэжээлийн дутагдалтай байх буюу өлсгөлөн үед ажиглагддаг байна. Анх 1960 онд Бельгийн эрдэмтэн Christian de Duve хулгана дээр өөрөө өөрийнхөө уургийг задлан ашиглах үзэгдлийг илрүүлж аутофаги гэж нэрлэсэн ч нарийн механизмыг нь илрүүлээгүй байжээ.

 Осүми гуай нь 1988 онд бичил биетний нэг төрөл болох дрожжи (Yeast) нь шим тэжээлээр дутагдаад ирэхээр хоос (vacuole) гэгдэх эрхтэнцэр дотор нь жижигхэн бөөрөнхий зүйл үүсэж байгааг микроскопоор ажиглажээ. Энэ нь дрожжи нь өөрийн эс доторх уургийг хоосруу зөөж задалж байгаа явц байжээ. 1993 онд шим тэжээлийн дутагдалд орсон ч аутофаги явагддаггүй 14н төрлийн дрожжийг илрүүлж, энгийн дрожжитой харьцуулснаар аутофагид хамаарагдах генийг тогтоожээ.

 Энэ нь хүний эс дээр ч явагддаг бөгөөд хөгшрөлт, хавдар үүсэх зэрэг олон физиологийн үзэгдэлтэй хамааралтай гэдэг нь тодорхой болоод байгаа юм.

2016.10.3

Иватэ их сургууль, ХАА факультет

Хэрэглээний биохимийн анги

М2 Ө. Нарандулам

 

Эх сурвалж:

  1. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2016/
  2. http://mainichi.jp/articles/20161004/k00/00m/040/018000c

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