Нийгэм Улаанбаатарын утаа цахилгаан станцых лав бишдэг
  • 2016/10/09
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 Хэдхэн хоногийн өмнө цас орсноор энэ жилийн маань өвөл айсуй. Одоо нөгөө утаа нь ихсээд ирэх нь ойлгомжтой. Утааны үүсгэгч нь гэр хороолол, машинын утаа, цахилгаан станц… БАЙЗААРАЙ! Би гарчигаа юу гэж өглөө? Тийм, би бол энэ утааны гол эзэн нь станцых лав биш гэж хэлнэ. “Тэр хар л даа утаа гарч л байна шүү дээ” гэж та дуугарч магадгүй. Хэрвээ та тэгж бодож байвал энэ нийтлэлийг уншаад нэг үзээрэй. Бага ч гэсэн мэдлэг болбол болох нь тэр. Би ч гэсэн анх буруу боддог байсан…

 Юуны өмнө өөрийхөө тухай хальт дурдахгүй бол энэ хэн гээч нэг нөхөр юу ярих гээд байна? гэж бодож магад, миний бие энэ оны 4-р сараас эхлээд дулааны цахилгаан станцын инженерээр ажиллаж эхэлсэн. За даа голдуу дандаа шинэ баригдах станцуудын ажлыг хийнгээ суралцах шатандаа л явж байна. Яг үнэндээ тийм мундаг инженер болоход асар хол л байна. Гэхдээ нэг зүйлийг энд яг бичмээр санагдаад… Би янз бүрийн судалгааны хариу зэргийг харж үзэлгүй л бичиж байна, уучлаарай. Цэвэр өөрийн бичил мэдлэг дээр, өөрийн бодлоо л бичье гэж бодлоо.

Эхний шалтгаанаар нэг амархан зүйлээс эхлье. Зун болохоор утаа маань багасдаг, тийм биз? Тэгтэл та бидний ашигладаг цахилгаан хаанаас ирээд байна вэ? Зурагтаа үздэг, утсаа цэнэглэдэг тэр эрчим хүч хаанаас үүсээд байна? Мэдээж манай цахилгаан станцууд ба тэр дотор ажиллаж буй хүмүүс үүнийг жилийн 365 хоног, өдрийн 24 цагийн турш бидэнд хүргэж байдаг. Зун ч гэсэн ажиллаад байдаг станцууд маань тэгэхлээр утаа бараг үүсгэдэггүй гэсэн үг үү? Уг нь нүүрс шатаадаг биз дээ?

За тэгвэл 2-дох шалтгааныг нь энд тайлбарлая. Мэдээж манай станцууд нүүрс шатааж байгаа. Шатаах шатаахдаа бүр өдрийн 1тонноос илүүг (станц бүр) бол шатааж байгаа гэж бодож байна. Нүүрс нь цэвэр нүүрстөрөгч C-өөс бүтдэггүй бөгөөд, усны бүтцээс эхлээд хүхэр S, азот N гэх мэтчилэн элементүүд агуулна. За тэгээд энийг шатаана. Шатаахад мэдээж хүчилтөрөгч O хэрэг болно. Тэгвэл цэвэр O-г биш зүгээр л та бидний амьсгалдаг агаараар шатаана. Тэгтэл агаарын дөнгөж 20 гаруй хувь нь л хүчилтөрөгч ба 70-с их хувь нь азот N. Агаарын 20 хувь нь л нүүрсийг шатаахад ашиглагдана гэсэн үг. Өөрөөр хэлбэл 1кг хүчилтөрөгч хэрэгтэй үед 5кг агаар хэрэгтэй гэсэн үг. За тэгээд нүүрс шатна гэдэг нь эдгээр элементүүд хоорондоо урвалд орно гэсэн үг. Уг урвалаар ус H2O, нүүрсхүчлийн хий CO2 мэдээж үүсэхээс гадна SOx болон NOx зэрэг хорт хийнүүд үүснэ. Нарийн урвалуудыг нь би ч сайн мэдэхгүй, 10 жилдээ химийн хичээлээ муу хийж байсан болохоор одоо харамсдаг л юм. Гэхдээ энэ зэргийн урвалыг бол та бүхэн ч бас ойлгочихож байгаа биз? Ойлгоогүй бол доор надаас лавлаж асуугаарай.

Тэгвэл баахан хий болон агаар үүсээд ирлээ дээ? Тэгвэл станцад маань мэдээж шүүлтүүрүүд байдаг. Улаанбаатарын ДЦС-4 лав миний мэдэхийн цахилгаан шүүлтүүртэй (EP: Electrostatic Precipitator). Энэ нь 97-98%-н шүүлттэй гэж бичсэн байна (танилцуулга материал дээр). EP гэдэг нь амархнаар хэлбэл, төмөр шүүлтүүрээр цахилгаан гүйлгээд, хийд агуулагдаж буй бодисыг өөртөө наалдуулна. Та бидний агаарын бөмбөлөг (шаар) толгойгоороо үрж таазанд тогтоодогтой адил аргаар. Тэгээд наалдсны дараа алх шиг юмаар цохиод унагаачихна. Өөр арга байдаг ч, ихэнхдээ энэ аргыг л ашиглаж байгаа болов уу? Энэ аргаар нүүрс шатаагаад үүссэн хийг шүүчихэж байгаа юм. Доорх зураг дээр харагдах болов уу?

Зураг 1. Цахилгаан шүүлтүүр

Тэгвэл яндангаар нь гараад байдаг зүйл (утаа) юу юм? Хариулт: усны уур. Энд нэг зүйл хэлэхэд аль нь яг яндан нь вэ? гэдгийг мэдэхгүй хүмүүс их байгаа байх. Доорх зураг дээр заасны дагуу, яндан нь өндөр нарийн нь бөгөөд арай намхан тогоо шиг зүйл нь ус хөргөгч. Өөрөөр хэлбэл станцад ашиглагдах усны хэм бага байх тусам энергийн хувьд ашигтай. Тэр тогооноос асар их утаа гарч байна гэж боддог бол тэр бол цэвэр усны уур юм шүү. Манайх шиг далайд гарцгүй орон усаа хэмнэх нэг арга нь гэсэн үг. Тиймээс тэр нэг савсаад байдаг зүйл лав утаа биш байх нь, тийм үү? Тэр өндөр яндангаас гарч буй зүйл бол мэдээж цэвэр уур бас биш ээ. Гэхдээ 97-98% нь усны уур гэж ойлгоорой. Ойролцоогоор 90 орчим хэм байгаа болов уу? Гадны оронд 120-130 хэм болтол халаагаад гаргадаг арга байдаг. Энэ нь техник талаасаа ашигтайн дээр, яндангаар гарах утаа харагдах байдал нь багасдаг ашигтай.

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Зураг 2. ДЦС-4

 Тэгвэл Улаанбаатарын утаа юунаас болоод байна гэж? Минийхээр бол гэр хорооллын утаа дийлэнх нь. Сая дээр бичсэн нөгөө нэг айхтар нүүрс шатааснаас үүсэх хий ямар ч шүүлтүүргүй гарч байгаа. Мэдээж нэг айл цагт тонн тонноор шатаахгүй л дээ. Гэхдээ 1000 айл нэг цагт тус бүр нэг 1кг шатаахад ямар их хэмжээний хорт агаар гарах нь ойлгомжтой.

 А тийм бас Монголын маань станцууд бүгд шүүлтүүртэй гэж бодож бичсэн байгаа шүү. Тухайн салбарын хүн уншаад, буруу зүйл юм уу нэмж бичмээр зүйл байвал доор сэтгэгдлээ үлдээхийг хүсье. Мөн SOx, NOx-н шүүлтүүр (Жишээ нь аммиак нэмэх аргаар салгадаг 4NO+4NH3+O2=4N2+6H2O) Монголд байхгүй гэж би бодож байгаа. Энэ нь мэдээж цэвэр гэсэн үг биш ч, нэн түрүүнд гэр хорооллын маань нүүрс шийдэгдэх хэрэгтэй байх.

 Үүнээс цааш миний мэдэх, шийдэж чадах асуудал даана ч биш юм. Даарахгүйн тулд нүүрсээ шатаалгүй л яахав. Шүүлтүүр тавь гэлээ гэхэд хөрөнгө санхүүгийн асуудал байгаа. Нүүрсээ болиод дулааны шугамд холбоно гэдэг бас хол. Минийхээр бол шинэ станц босгоод, бүгдийг нь дулааны шугам бус цахилгаанаар халаамаар юм шиг. Дулааны шугам татах нь ялгаагүй л станцын ашигт үйлийн коефциентийг багасгаж байгаа. Тэрнээс биш утаагүй нүүрс л гэнэ, утаагүй зуух л гэнэ, юм шатааж байхад утаа гарахгүй байна гэж юу байхав. Би тэр талаар сайн мэдэхгүй ч, хортой хий заавал нүдэнд харагдах албагүй л гэж бодож байна. Усны уур (100% хийн төлөвт) хүртэл нүдэнд харагддаггүй юм. Уншиж буй таныг би, зөвхөн харж байгаагаараа битгий шийдээсэй л гэж хүсэж байна. Харагдахгүй байлаа гээд хоргүй гэсэн үг биш, харгадлаа гээд хортой гэсэн үг биш юм шүү. Буруу зөрүү юм бичсэн байвал сэтгэгдэл хэсэг та бүхэнд нээлттэй.

2016.10.9
И. Өгөөмөр

  1. EP зураг : http://www.hamonusa.com/hrc/products/esp
  2. Станц зураг: www.energy.gov.mn

 

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