Шинжлэх ухаан Энергийн шинэ шийдэл 2: Далайн цахилгаан станц
  • 2017/03/21
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Нүдэнд харагддаггүй энерги гэгч зүйлийг бид төдийлөн анзаардаггүй ч, яг үнэндээ хүн төрөлхтний өнөө үеийн чухал асуудлын нэг байсаар байна. Монгол орныхоо хувьд жишээлбэл, зуухандаа нүүрс шатааж дулаан гаргах. Үүнээс үүдэж Улаанбаатарын маань утааны асуудал жил бүр л яригддаг. Япон орны хувьд, 2011.3.11 онд болсон газар хөдлөлтийн гамшигаас хойш, атомын цахилгаан станцуудыг зогсоож эхэлсэн ба хэрэгцээт энергийг үүсгэхийн тулд бусад эх үүсгүүрүүд нь өндөр хэмжээний хүчин чадлаараа ажиллаж байна.

Та бидний сэргээгдэх эрчим хүч хэмээх нэрээр мэддэг нар, салхины цахилгаан үүсгүүрүүд сүүлийн үед нилээн эрчимтэйгээр хөгжиж байгаа гэж хэлж болно. Гэвч бид бүхэн энэхүү сэргээгдэх хүчээр бүх цахилгаанаа нөхөж чадах мэт байнга андуурдаг. Цахилгааны хэрэглээ нь мэдээж цаг, өдөр, сар, улирлаасаа хамаараад хувисан өөрчлөгдөж байдаг ба эрчим хүчийг хадгална гэж бараг боломжгүй тул хэрэгцээ нь хэрэглээтэйгээ яг ижилхэн явна. Өөрөөр хэлбэл, та зурагтаа асаахад, танд тааруулж илүү цахилгааныг үйлдвэрлэнэ гэж ойлгож болно. Арай томоор авч үзвэл, өдөр нь их хэрэглэх бол, орой нь бага (тийм ч учраас шөнийн тариф бага байдаг), өвөл болон зун халаагуур болон хөргөх эд анги (эйркондишн гэх мэт) их ашиглана.

Тэгвэл, атом болон дулааны станцууд нь энэхүү хувьсалтанд төдийлөн тохиромжтой бус юм. Учир нь унтраах болон асаахад асар их цаг орно, мөн миний мэдэхийн нүүрсний станц нь эхнээсээ нүүрс бус мазот, газ болон дизель зэрэг түлшээр халаадаг тул олон дахин асааж унтраах нь зардлын хувьд ашиггүй тусдаг. Тиймээс атом болон дулааны (мөн газрын дулаан зэрэг) станцууд нь суурь эрчим хүч (Baseload power, өөрөөр хэлбэл тогтмол эх үүсвэр) гэж нэрлэгддэг.
Харин ус (хэрэгцээ гарах үед тогтоосон усаа урсгах), салхи (сэнсээ сулруулж салхинд тааруулан эргүүлэх), нар (гэрлээ хураан авах) зэрэг үүсгүүр нь бидний хэрэгцээнд тохируулж ажиллана. Манай орны хувьд хүчин чадлаа дийлэхгүй үед ОХУ-с мөн худалдан авдаг билээ.
Нилээн удаан оршил бичсэн ч, яг эндээс нэгэн ирээдүйн эрчим хүчны үүсвэрийн технологийн тухай бичье. Суурь эрчим хүч нь голдуу атом эсвэл дулааны станцуудаар хангагдаж байна. Энэ нь байгаль орчинд төдийлөн ээлтэй бас биш ба, нөөцийн хувьд ч гэсэн хангалттай бус юм. Магадгүй 100 жилийн дараа гэхэд дизель түлш байхгүй болох, нүүрсний нөөц бага болж улмаар үнэд орох зэрэг асуудлууд үүсэх нь гарцаагүй болов уу. Эдгээр асуудлыг шийдэх суурь эрчим хүчний шинэ шийдлийг дэлхий нийт хайсаар байна. Би өмнө нь сансрын цахилгаан станцын тухай нэгэн нийтлэл бичсэн билээ. Тэгвэл энэ удаадаа далайн цахилгаан станцын тухай танилцуулъя.
Энэхүү төсөл нь одоогоор Японы Номхон далайн усны гүнд суурилагдахаар төлөвлөгдөж байгаа ба энэ нь амжилттай болбол 2000 ширхэг атомын цахилгаан станцтай дүйцэхүйц суурь эрчим хүч гаргах боломжтой хэмээгдэж байгаа юм.
Далайн цахилгаан станц нь доорх 4 давуу талтай.
1. Далайн гүний урсгалыг ашиглах тул өдөр шөнө, улирал хамааралгүйгээр тогтмол энерги үүсгэх учир суурь эрчим хүчний эх үүсгэвэр болж чадна.
2. Далайн давалгаан дээр гарч ирэхгүй тул, бусад объёоктуудаас хамааралгүй мөн нөлөөгүй.
3. 2 сэнс нь хоорондоо эсрэг чиглэлээр эргэх тул (2 сэнстэй нисдэг тэргүүд шиг) момент (torque) хүч үйлчлэхгүй (сэнстэй залгаа бие нь эргэхгүй).
4. Далайн гадаргуу дээр гаргаж ирэх боломжтой ба, шаардлагатай үед засвар үйлчилгээг хийхэд амархан.

Японы IHI, Toshiba корпораци болон Токио их сургууль, МицүйБүссаний судалгааны лаборатриуд хамтран энэхүү системийг судалж байгаа ба аль хэдийн 1/30 загвар дээр туршилтыг явуулж эхэлсэн байна. Усан дотор эргэх сэнс учир, ашигт үйлийн коеффициент нь мөн өндөр болно хэмээн таамаглаж байна (Салхин сэнс: дээд тал нь 40% орчим болов уу, Нүүрс: 30-40% болов уу). Мөн цаашлаад сэнсний хэмжээ нь ойролцоогоор 40метрийн диаметр, бага эргэлтээр цахилгаан үүсгэх зэрэг шинэ шинэ асуудлуудыг араасаа дагуулж байгаа юм.
Япон улс болон бусад орны хувьд иймэрхүү байдлаар ирээдүй үеийнхээ эрчим хүч, энергийн нөөцөө хайж байна. Манай орны хувьд, нүүрсээ түшиглэсэн хөгжил чухал болов уу хэмээн бодож байна. Гагцхүү гарах утаа (CO2, NOx, SOx) болон усны нөөцийн асуудлыг мөн маш сайн тооцоолж өгөх хэрэгтэй болов уу. Ямартаа ч бид зөвхөн өнөөдрөө бус маргаашаа харж эхлэх хэрэгтэй л санагдаж байна.
P.S Уншиж дууссан та бүхэнд баярлалаа. Мөн доор асуулт болон шүүмж сэтгэгдэл үлдээвэл илүү их баяртай байх болно.
Ашигласан материал болон зургуудыг  IHI, Toshiba корпораци болон Токио их сургуулийн хуудсуудаас авсан болно. 

И. Өгөөмөр
2017.3.21

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