Шинжлэх ухаан Үл үзэгдэх ертөнцийн гайхамшиг цуврал №2- “Эсийн төрөл”-
  • 2017/04/17
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Үл үзэгдэх ертөнцийн гайхамшиг цуврал нь нүдэнд үл харагдаж, гарт үл баригдах тийм нэгэн зүйлсийн талаар танилцуулж байгаа билээ. Цувралынхаа эхний дугаартаа эс гэдэг бол нэгэн төрлийн микро үйлдвэр гэдгийг танилцуулж, түүний бүтэц үйл ажиллагааг дурдсан билээ. Тэгвэл энэ удаагийнхаа дугаартаа энэхүү эсийн төрөл болон тэдгээрийн бүтцийн ялгааг тайлбарлахаар бэлтгэлээ.

Эс нь амьтны, ургамлын, бактерийн зэрэг маш олон төрлөөр ангилагдаж болно. Гэхдээ эдгээрт ерөнхий гурван бүтэц бий. Удамшлын мэдээлэл хадгалах ДНХ, эсийг гадаад ертөнцөөс тусгаарлах эсийн бүрхүүл, мөн эсийн дотоод шингэн болох сийвэн буюу цитоплазм юм. Өмнөх нийтлэлдээ эдгээрээс гадна митохондри, эндоплазмийн тор зэрэг эрхтэнцрүүдийг агуулах амьтны эсийг танилцуулсан болно. Эсийг ерөнхийд нь прокариот болон эукариот эс гэж хоёр хувааж болно.
 Прокариот эс нь ерөнхийдөө бактерийн эс бөгөөд, бөөм гэх бүтэцгүй, ДНХ-гээ сийвэн дотроо хадгална. ДНХ-г хадгалж буй сийвэнгийн энэ хэсгийг бөөмөрхүү биет буюу нуклеоид гэнэ. Прокариот эст амьтан буюу бактер нь 1-10н микрометрийн урттай бөгөөд, энэ нь хүний эснээс 10-100 дахин жижиг хэмжээтэй гэсэн үг юм. Прокариот эс нь хамгийн жижиг бөгөөд хялбар бүтэцтэй эс гэж хэлж болно. Ерөнхийдөө эрхтэнцэр гэхээр бүтэцгүй, эсийн бүрхүүлийн гадуур эсийн ханан гадаргуутай юм.
Эукариот эс нь жинхэнэ бөөмт эсийг хэлэх бөгөөд, энэ нь бөөм гэгдэх хоёр давхар бүрхүүлт бүтцэд ДНХ-гээ агуулах эс юм. Мөөг, ургамал, амьтан зэрэг бактераас бусад төрлийн организм нь эукариот эст амьтан юм. Ерөнхий бүтэц нь эсийн бүрхүүл, ДНХ агуулах бөөм, митохондри, эндоплазмын тор, гольджийн аппарат, лизосом, пероксисом зэрэг эрхтэнцрээс тогтоно. Энэ нь амьтны эс бөгөөд, мөөгөнцрийн эс нь үүнээс гадна эсийн хана, ургамлын эс нь эсийн хана болон хлоропласт гэгдэх гэрлийн нийлэгжил явуулдаг эрхтэнцэртэй юм.
Тэгвэл вирус гэж юу вэ? Вирус нь 0.02-0.3 микрометр буюу нано хэмжээстэй бөгөөд, эсийг микро үйлдвэр гэх юм бол вирусыг нано машин гэж хэлж болох юм. Вирус нь ерөнхийдөө удмын мэдээлэл болох нуклейн хүчил болон уургийн бүхүүлнээс бүрдэнэ. Энэ нь өөрөөсөө энерги үйлдвэрлэхгүй, мөн хуваагдлаар үржихгүй. Тиймээс бусад эсэд халдварлан үржих, эсийн бус тогтолцоотой тул үүнийг амьд зүйлд тооцох эсэх нь одоог хүртэл эргэлзээтэй байдаг.
Хүснэгт. Эсийн төрөл болон түүний ялгаа (○- байгаа, ×- байхгүй)
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Энэ удаагийн нийтлэлдээ эсийн төрлийн талаар хялбархнаар дурдлаа. Саяхныг хүртэл амьд зүйлс нь гадаад төрх байдал хэв шинжээр ангилагдаж ирсэн бол, сүүлийн үед ДНХ-н дарааллын ялгаагаар ангилах болсон юм. Энэ нь амьтдыг архей, бактер, эукариа гэж ангилах бөгөөд, энд шинэ ангилал болох архей мэндэлж, бусад бүх жинхэнэ бөөмт эст амьтад нь эукариад ангилагдах болсон юм. Үүний талаар дараагийн нийтлэлдээ дурдах болно.

Ө. Нарандулам

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