Шинжлэх ухаан Шингэн түлш
  • 2017/05/16
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1. Шингэн түлш гэж юу вэ?
Бидний эргэн тойронд байдаг мод ургамал амьтад гэх мэт амьд бие организмын 95% орчим хувь нь устөрөгч хүчилтөрөгч нүүрстөрөгч гэсэн гуравхан төрлийн элементээс тогтдогийг орчин үеийн шинжлэх ухаан тогтоогоод байна. Эдгээр ургамал мод амьтдын хатсан үлдэгдэл сэг зэм нь газрын хөрсөнд тодорхой даралт дулаанд он удаан жил хадгалагдан газрын тос буюу нефть болон хувирдаг. Энэхүү газрын тосыг боловсруулж гарган авсан шингэн бодисыг шингэн түлш гэх бөгөөд үндсэн тодорхойлолт нь хэвийн даралт (1 амт) болон температур (23℃) шингэн төлөвтэй түлш болгон хэрэглэж болохуйц бодисыг шингэн түлш гэнэ гэсэн байдаг. Ихэвчлэн дотоод шаталтат хөдөлгүүр, бойлер гэж хэлж заншсан уурын тогоо, бага оврын дулааны станц, гэрийн халаагуур зэрэгт шингэн түлшийг өргөн хэрэглэж байна. Нефтиэс гаралтай шингэн түлшинд газолин буюу бензин, дизель түлш, газрын тос, мазут зэрэг нь амьдралд ойр хэрэглэгдэж, хими болон бордооны үйлдвэр, угаалга ариун цэврийн нунтаг, полимер нэгдлийг гаргаж авахад үндсэн материал болгон хэрэглэдэг. Мөн тийрэлтэт онгоц пуужин зэрэгт түлш болгон хэрэглэж орчин үеийн бидний амьдралд салшгүй нэгэн хэсэг болтлоо өргөн хүрээнд хэрэглэгдэж байна.
2. Шингэн түлшний төрөл
 2.1   Бензин
Ихэвчлэн нефтийг нэрэх аргаар гаргаж авсан нүүрстөрөгчийн атом дөрвөөс арван хоёр орсон нүүрс устөрөгчийн нэгдлийг бензин гэх ба түүнд агуулагдах бодисуудыг зураг 1 харуулав.

Зураг 1. Бензинд агуулагдах бодисууд

 Бензинийг хадгалалтын зөв горимд 6 сар хүртэл хадгална. Үүнээс илүү хугацаанд хадгалбал бензиний чанарт өөрчлөлт гарна гэж үздэг ба дэгдэмхий учир шатах шинж нь буурч зарим бодис нь устай урвалд орж хүчил шүлт үүсгэх нь бий. Шингэн түлшинд бас нэг чухал дурдах ёстой зүйл бол октаны тоо юм. Бензиний цилиндр доторх даралтын харьцаанаас шалтгаалж эрт болон хожуу шатах үеийг тодорхойлохын тулд октан гэдэг хэмжигдэхүүнийг ашигладаг энэ талаарх дэлгэрэнгүйг дараагийн нийтлэлээс сонирхоно уу.
2.2   Дизель түлш
Дизель түлш нь нүүрстөрөгчийн арваас хорин атом агуулсан ханасан нүүрсустөрөгчдөөс бүтсэн нэгдэл юм. Дизель түлшний хэрэглээний нэг онцлог нь бензинээр ажилладаг хөдөлгүүрээс илүү ашигт үйлийн зэрэг (АҮК) өндөртэйд оршино. Жишээгээр тайлбарлавал бензин хөдөлгүүрийн АҮК 20% байхад дизель хөдөлгүүр 40% байдаг нь уул уурхай болон хүнд машин техникүүд их хэмжээний түлш хэрэглэдэг учир АҮК өндөртэй дизель хөдөлгүүр ашигладаг байна. Мөн агаарт хаях хорт хий бензин хөдөлгүүрийнх нь их байдаг.
Дизель түлш болон хөдөлгүүрийг автомашин, усан онгоц, галт тэрэг хүнд даацын машин болон хөдөө аж ахуйн ихэнх техникт өргөн хэрэглэж байна.
 2.3   Керосин
Керосин нь мөн л нефтийн бүтээгдэхүүний нэг бөгөөд нүүрстөрөгчийн атом арваас арван тав орсон нүүрс устөрөгчийн нэгдэл юм. Гол хэрэглээ нь пуужин болон онгоцны түлш болгон мөн ахуйд гэрийн халаагч жижиг зууханд хэрэглэдэг. Сансрын хөлөгт хэрэглэдэг шатахуун нь агаар мандлын гадна шатах шаардлагатай байдаг тул шингэн устөрөгч болон хүчилтөрөгчийг нэгдлийг хольж өгдөг.
 2.4   Шингэрүүлсэн байгалийн хий
Байгалийн хийн ихэнх агуулга нь метан хийгээс бүрддэг. Энэ хийг өндөр даралтад шингэрүүлж шатахуун болгодог ба дотоод шаталтат хөдөлгүүрийн насыг уртасгах, энгийн шатахуунаас хямд, хорт хийн ялгаруулалт бага зэрэг давуу талтай.
 2.5   Шингэрүүлсэн нефтийн хий
Пропан (C3H8) болон бутан (C4H10) гэсэн үндсэн хоёр хийнээс бүрддэг. Ихэвчлэн ахуйн болон автомашины шатахуун болгож хэрэглэдэг. Энэ хий нь шатахдаа хүхэр болон тортог маш бага хэмжээгээр гаргадаг байгаль орчинд ээлтэй шатахуун юм. Турк улсын    суудлын автомашины 40% нь энэ хийгээр ажилдаг байна.
 2.6   Био-дизель
Ургамлын гаралтай тосноос гаргаж авсан дизель хөдөлгүүрт зориулагдсан шатахууныг био-дизель гэдэг. Ихэнхдээ наран цэцэг, олив, шош, дал мод гэх мэт ургамлын тосноос гаргаж авах ба загас, гахай, үхэр зэрэг малын гаралтай тос мөн хаягдал тос нь био дизелийн түүхий эд болдог. Энэ түлш нь нефтийн бүтээгдэхүүнээс ялгагдах гол онцлог нь дулааны өөрчлөлтөд хатуурах мотор доторх эд ангийн зөөлөвчийг гэмтээж болзошгүй байдаг тийм учир нэмэлт бодис хийж исэлдлээс хамгаалдаг.
 2.7   Спиртийн төрлийн шатахуун
Метанол этанол гэх зэргийн спиртийн төрлийн шатахууныг бензинтэй хольж сайн чанарын түлш болгон хэрэглэдэг. Тухайлбал E85 буюу этанол 85% бензин 15% ийн холимгийг ингэж нэрлэдэг ба Европ болон Америкийн зах зээлд өргөн хэрэглэгддэг.
 2.8   Шингэрүүлсэн устөрөгч  
Шингэрүүлсэн устөрөгчийг пуужингийн шатахуунд хэрэглэдэг ба зарим шумбагч хөлөг мөн сүүлийн үед автомашинд шатахуун болгож хэрэглэж байна. Жишээлбэл Японы тоёота корпорацын “Мирай (ирээдүй)” гэх автомашин нь шингэн устөрөгчийг хүчилтөрөгчтэй урвалд оруулж гаргаж авсан цахилгаан энергиэр хөдөлдөг. Японы судалгааны төвүүдэд устөрөгчийн нийгэм гэдэг үг моодонд ороод байгаа бөгөөд энергийн эх үүсвэрээ устөрөгчөөр хангах байгальд ээлтэй шатахууныг өртөг багатай нийлүүлэх гэх зэрэгт гол судалгаагаа үргэлжлүүлж байгаа аж.
3. Хэрэглээ
Америкийн судалгааны байгууллага болох eia-аас гаргасан судалгаанд 2040 он хүртэл шингэн түлшний хэрэглээ 38% өснө гэжээ (Зураг2). Хэдийгээр устөрөгчийн зай, сэргээгдэх эрчим хүч эрчимтэй хөгжиж байгаа ч Энэтхэг, Хятад гэх зэрэг хүн ам олонтой зах зээл тэлэх боломжтой хөгжиж буй бүс нутгуудад шингэн түлшний хэрэглээ тогтмол өсөх хандлагатай байна. Мөн өмнөд Америкийн хөгжиж буй улсууд зүүн өмнөд Азид шингэн түлшний хэрэглээ өдрөөс өдөрт нэмэгдэж байгааг судалгаа харуулж байна. Хэрэглээ ахих тусам дэлхийн дулаарал агаарын бохирдол гэсэн байгаль орчны асуудал мөн хурцаар тавигдаж байгаа ба энэ хэрэглээг хязгаарлах бус эрүүл мэндэд мөн байгаль орчинд ээлтэй илүү дэвшилтэт технологийг нэвтрүүлэхийг зорин дэлхийн томоохон улсууд судалгааны багийг ажиллуулж байна.

Зураг 2. Дэлхийн энергийн шиг хандлага

 Харин Монголд байдал ямар байна вэ? Үндэсний статистикийн хорооноос гаргасан судалгаанд 2003 онд 441 мянган тонн байсан шатахууны хэрэглээ 2016 онд 1227 мянган тонн болж ойролцоогоор 3 дахин өссөн тоон мэдээлэл байна. Энэ тоо цаашдаа ч өсөх хандлагатай байгаа ба нийт хэрэглээний 50% орчим хувийг эзэлдэг дизель түлшний хэрэглээ уул уурхайн хөгжлийг дагаж байнгын өсөлттэй байгаа юм. Харамсалтай нь монгол улс шингэн түлшээ 100% гаднаас импортолж нийт импортын үнийн дүнгийн 20% нь шингэн түлш байна. Эндээс Монгол улс нь газрын баялгаа экспортолж олсон мөнгөний тавны нэгээр нь түлш шатахуун авч шатааж байна гэсэн үг.
4. Нөөц
Олон улсын BP группээс гаргасан 2016 оны судалгаагаар нефть 50.7 жилийн, байгалийн хий 52.8 жил, нүүрс 114 жилийн нөөцтэй гэжээ. Мэдээж хэрэг техник технологийн хөгжлийг даган энэ нөөц ихсэх магадлалтай ч сүүлийн жилүүдэд нөөцийн илрүүлэлтээс хэрэглээ нь эрс ихсэж байгаа билээ. Монголын хувьд 250 сая орчим тонн газрын тосны нөөцтэй гэдэг ба бид жилдээ 1 сая тонн газрын тос өмнөд хөршрүүгээ экспортолж байна. Энэ тоо жил ирэх тусам нэмэгдэж байгаа бөгөөд Тосон уул, Тамсаг, БХГ-97 гэх газруудад Хятадын 100% ийн хөрөнгө оруулалттай компаниуд олборлолтоо нэмэгдүүлэх төлөвлөгөөтэй байгаа юм байна.
5. Дүгнэлт
Анхны дотоод шаталтат хөдөлгүүр бүтсэнээс хойш дэлхийн хөгжил хурдассан гэж үздэг. Энэ хөгжилд шингэн түлш буюу нефтийн үүрэг бас чухал нөлөөтэй ба дэлхийн энергийн эх үүсвэрийн 35%-ийг бүрдүүлж байна. Түүхий нефтийг нэрэх аргаар олон төрлийн шатах тослох материал гарган авч түүнийгээ гэрийн халаагчаас эхлээд орчин үеийн шинжлэх ухааны оргил болсон сансрын хөлгийг хөөргөх хүртэл төрөл бүрийн салбарт хэрэглэж байна. Энэ хэрэглээ дэлхий төдийгүй Монголд ч тогтмол өсөж байгаа ч нөөцийн хувьд хязгаарлагдмал байдал нь асуудал дагуулж буй юм. Мөн шингэн түлшийг хэдий их хэмжээгээр хэрэглэнэ тэр хэмжээгээр дэлхийн дулаарал ба агаарын бохирдол нэмэгдэж байгаа нь дэлхий нийтийн толгой өвтгөсөн асуудал болж байна.
Бид хэрэглээний шингэн түлшээ гаднаас худалдан авч оронд нь зэс алт нүүрсээ экспортолж байна. Улс орны хөгжлийг хурдасгах, эдийн засгийг сайжруулах, шинжлэх ухаан технологид суурилсан бүтээгдэхүүн үйлдвэрлэхийн тулд нефть химийн үйлдвэр зайлшгүй хэрэгтэйг дээрх судалгаа харуулж байна.

С. Данзанваанжил


Ашигласан материал:
https://www.britannica.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasoline
https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/docs/SAJ/Brochure/1/j_petrocol.pdf
http://www.ogj.com/articles/2014/09/ieo2014-world-liquid-fuels-consumption-to-rise-38-by-2040.html
https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf
https://mrpam.gov.mn/article/49/
http://www.paj.gr.jp/about/data/sekiyunoQA.pdf
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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