Шинжлэх ухаан Утааны асуудлыг Устөрөгч шийдэж магадгүй
  • 2017/06/13
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Орчин цагийн анхаарлын төвд буй техник технологийн нэгэн хувьсал бол яах аргагүй “Устөрөгчийн Энерги”. Өдгөөгөөс 3 жилийн өмнө автомашин үйлдвэрлэгч Тоёота корпораци “Mirai” (Монгол хэл дээр бол Ирээдүй гэсэн утгатай) машиныг борлуулж эхэлсэн билээ. Уг машин нь бид бүхний мэддэг АИ93, 95, А76, Дизель гэх мэт газрын тосны гаралтай шатахуунаар бус, зөвхөн устөрөгчөөр ажилладаг онцлогтой. Яагаад устөрөгчийг сонгосон талаар энэхүү нийтлэлдээ амархнаар тайлбарлая.
Оршил хэсэгт бичихэд, юун түрүүнд хүн төрөлхтөн бидний баялаг хэзээ нэгэн цагт дуусна гэгддэг билээ. Газрын тос, нүүрс, байгалийн хий гээд олон олон баялгаар цахилгаан үйлдвэрлэж, машин болон онгоцоо ажиллуулж, за ядаж л наад зах нь утсаа цэнэглэх хоолоо хийх гэх мэт зүйлс нь маш энгийн зүйл болж. Одоохондоо болж байгаа ч эдгээр баялаг дуусвал яах бол? Гэсэн том асуулт байсаар л байгаа. За даа бид бүхнийг амьд байхад гайгүй л байх. Гэхдээ л бид дараа дараагийн үедээ боломжийг үлдээхийн тулд сэргээгдэх эрчим хүч, байгальд ээлтэй баялгыг сонгох нь зайлшгүй болоод байна. Ялангуяа хөгжилтэй орнууд дэлхийн нүүрсхүчлийн хийн яргаруулалтаар тэргүүлдэг тул, хүлэмжийн хийд бага нөлөөлөх гэж нүүрсхүчлийн хийг багасгах тал дээр арга хэмжээ авч байна. Үүний үр дүнд шинэ энергийн эх үүсвэрүүд, шинэ энергийн санаа шийдэл ар араасаа л гарч байна. Тэр дундаа хамгийн ойрын хугацаанд боломжтой нь ба аль хэдийн хэрэгжиж эхлээд буй нь H2 буюу Устөрөгч!
Дүгнэлтээс нь шууд хэлэхэд устөрөгчөөс энерги гаргахад нүүрсхүчлийн хий, SOx, NOx гэх мэт хий огт гарахгүй бөгөөд зөвхөн ус л ялгарна. Өөрөөр хэлбэл Тоёота-гийн Мирай машины яндангаас зөвхөн ус л гарна. Гайхалтай биш гэж үү? За тэгвэл устөрөгчөөс яаж энерги гаргаж авдаг талаар маш амархнаар тайлбарлая.
Энэ нь анх Сульфат Натри Na2SO4-г усанд уусгахад, ус нь электролизоор салдаг гэдгийг нээснээс гаралтай. Өөрөөр хэлбэл Na2SO4-тай усанд нэмэх болон хасах цэнэг (анод болон катод)-ийг байршуулахад H+ болон OH- нар үүсч, эдгээр нь тогтворгүй учир тэр дороо хийн төлөвт H2 хасах туйл дээр, нэмэх туйл дээр мөн адил хийн төлөвт O2 үүсдэг байх нь.

Тэгвэл яг үүний эсрэг урвал буюу O2 болон H2-г хооронд нь урвалд оруулахад хасах туйлаас нэмэх туйл уруу H+ гүйж ус үүсдэг ба үүний үр дүнд цахилгаан үүсдэг байх нь. Энэхүү урвал нь 1839 онд батлагдасан ба Мирай машины механизм нь тэр чигтээ энэхүү амархан урвалаас бүтэж байгаа. Та магадгүй Англи хэл дээр Fuel Cell, Япон хэл дээр 燃料電池 гэж сонсож байсан байх.

  1. Өнөө үед устөрөгчийн хийг хэрхэн хямд аргаар цуглуулах нь л асуудал болоод байгаа юм. Яг одоо бол байгалийн хийгээс голдуу гаргаж байна.
    CH4+H2O=CO+3H2, CO+H2O=CO2+H2
  2. Мөн олон зүйлд ашиглагддаг химийн бодис болох идэмхий Натри NaOH-г гаргаж авах явцад үүсдэг.
    2NaCl+H2O=Cl2+H2+2NaOH
  3. Төмөрлөргийн үйлдвэрт нүүрсээр коксжуулахад устөрөгч 55% орчим үүсдэг байна.
    Нүүрс ➡ Кокс C + Кокс зуухны хий (H2, CH4, CO, CO2, N2)

Эцэст нь хэлэхэд, устөрөгчөөс үүсэх энергийн 40% нь цахилгаанд, 40% нь дулаанд ашиглаж болно. Одоогоор мэдээж өртөг нь үнэтэй байгаа ч, H2-г хямд аргаар олж чадвал айл болгон энэхүү аргаар амьдарч болох юм. Дулаанаар нь халаалтын систем болон усаа халаагаад, цахилгаанаар нь тогны асуудлаа шийдэж болно. Бүхэл бүтэн 80%-г ашиглаж болох мөн зөвхөн ус ялгаруулах ийм цэвэр бөгөөд ашигтай энергийн шийдэл байхгүй байх. Цахилгаан станц гэхэд бид бүхний гар дээр иртлээ ойролцоогоор 35% нь л ирдэг билээ. Устөрөгчийн энерги хөгжингүй орнуудад тун удалгүй нилээн нэвтрэх биз. Хэдүүлээ эхлүүлж чадах биш хараад л сууж байя даа өөр яахав…

И. Өгөөмөр
2017.6.13

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