Шинжлэх ухаан Үл үзэгдэх ертөнцийн гайхамшиг цуврал №3- “Орчин үеийн биологийн ангилал”-
  • 2018/03/16
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Үл үзэгдэх ертөнцийн гайхамшиг цуврал нь нүдэнд үл үзэгдэж, гарт үл баригдах тийм нэгэн зүйлсийн талаар танилцуулж байгаа билээ. Өмнөх дугаартаа биологийн үндсэн нэгж болох эсийн төрөл болон тэдгээрийн бүтцийн ялгааг тайлбарласан билээ. Тэгвэл энэ удаагийнхаа дугаартаа орчин үеийн биологийн ангилалын талаар танилцуулахаар бэлтгэлээ. “Яагаад гэнэт орчин үеийн биологийн ангилал гэж?” та бодож магад. Тус монгол хэл дээр бараг мэдээлэл байгайгүй тул гэж хэлж болно. Дараагийн нийтлэлдээ доор гарч ирэх архей гэгдэх шинэ амьд биесийн талаар танилцуулах тул үүний өмнөх мэдээлэл болгон энэхүү нийтлэлийг танилцуулахаар бэлтгэлээ.
1. Орчин үеийн ангилал
20-р зууны дунд үе хүртэл биологийн ухаанд амь биесийг биохимийн шинж чанар, гаднах төрх байдал, бодис солилцох системийн онцлогоор нь 5 аймагт ангилдаг байсан билээ. Энэ нь 20-р зууны сүүлээр амьд биесийг генийнх нь дарааллаар харьцуулах болсноор өөрчдөгдсөн байна. Үүний үр дүнд 5 аймагт хуваагдаж байсан биологийн ангилалд цар (Domain: цар гэх нь зөв нэршил эсэхийг сайн мэдэхгүй байна) хэмээх ойлголт орж, 3 царт хуваагдах болсон байна. Эртний нян буюу архей, нян буюу бактери, жинхэнэ бөөмтөн буюу эукариота гэсэн 3 цард хуваагдах болсон байна. Нарийн ангилалыг доорх хүснэгтнээс хараарай.

Орчин үеийн биологийн ангилал

(Хүснэгтэндэх нэршил үнэхээр хэцүү харагдаж байгаа биз. Энэ нь бодвол генийг харьцуулахаар одоог хүртэл нэг ангилалд орж байсан зүйлс нь хоорондоо их ялгаатай байсан энэ тэр гэсэн асуудлаас болж байгаа байх. Шинэ төрөл зүйлийг олж, амьтдыг ангилана гээд завгүй байгаа биологийн эрдэмтэд маань нэг өдөр энэ асуудлыг засна гэж найдаж байна. )
2. Жинхэнэ бөөмтний цар

 Жинхэнэ бөөмтөн нь өмнөх нийтлэлд дурдаж байсан эукариот эстэй бүх амьтад орно. Үүнд хүн, амьтан, ургамал, мөөг, хорхой шавьж, цаашлаад нэг эстэй амёб хүртэл энэ ангилалд орно. Хамгийн сайн танигдсан ангилал тул нуршилгүй энд үлдээе.

3. Бактерийн цар
Энэ цар нь та бидний мэдэх, бидний эргэн тойронд оршин байдаг нян л энэ цард орно. Та бидэнд харагдахгүй ч энэ бичил амьд биес нь маш олон төрлөөрөө, маш олон тоогоор бидний эргэн тойронд оршиж, заримдаа үр өгөөжөө өгч, заримдаа өвчин үүсгэх зэргээр хор хөнөөл учруулан оршин тогтносоор байна. Дараа дараагийн нийтлэлүүддээ тэдгээрийн талаар сонирхолтой баримтыг танилцуулах болно.
4. Архейн цар
Архей нь бактерийн адил хуурамч бөөмт эс буюу прокариот эстэй амьд биес юм. Гэхдээ ДНХ-н мэдээллийн хувьд бактериас илүү жинхэнэ бөөмтөнтэй ойролцоо юм. Архей нь халуун ус, далайн гүн, хүчиллэг орчин зэрэг бусад амьтад амьдрахааргүй нөхцөлд оршино. Тиймээс бидний эргэн тойронд оршихгүй юм. Дараагийн нийтлэлдээ энэхүү шинэ царын талаар дэлгэрэнгүй танилцуулья гэж бодож байна.
Энэ удаагийн нийтлэлдээ орчин үеийн биологийн ангилалын талаар хялбархнаар дурдлаа. Энэхүү нийтлэлийг миний өөрийн мэдлэг болон гадаад, дотоодын википедиа дээр суурьласан болно. Тус нийтлэл дээр гарч ирж буй гадаад нэр томьёо нь монгол хэл дээр мэдээлэл байгаагүй тул, дуудлагаар нь орчуулсан зүйл олон байгаа. Эдгээр нэр томъёоны талаар уншигч танд мэддэг зүйл байвал сэтгэгдэл дээр үлдээгээрэй. Мөн нийтлэлч миний бие гадаадад ирээд удаж байгаа тул монголын сурах бичигт энэ талаар хэр мэдээлэл байдаг талаар сэтгэгдэл үлдээж өгвөл талархах болно.

Ө. Нарандулам

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